Sunday, February 26, 2006

THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT


Economic and Monetary Framework
Like many parts of Zimbabwe, Masvingo South Constituency bore the brunt of the War of Liberation (1964 - 1980). The people in this area actively participated in prosecuting the struggle for freedom and independence. This was the road to democracy. 24 years of independence, the Constituency is still yet to develop in terms of provision of infrastructure like roads, telecommunications, bridges, schools, rural electrification, water supplies and rural service centres. The net effect of lack of such amenities has been perpetuation of poverty. Without a structured development plan, poverty will continue to ravage the people of the constituency.
This plan is meant to critically reflect on the political and socio-economic environment in the constituency and propose recommendations aimed at improving the quality of life for the people in the constituency.
Current statistics show that at best 70 percent of the Zimbabwean population live in the rural areas, which are bedevilled by lack of access to basic social services such as health, education, clean water and sanitation. There is dire need to develop infrastructure to support productive activities and generate incomes. That would make rural areas. attractive to the young and economically active segment of the population, and curb or forestall the rural- urban drift in search of elusive job opportunities. The consequences of rural-urban migration leads to congestion in towns and cities which in turn lead to rapid deterioration of the social and physical amenities. The key strategies to develop the constituency are to improve the economic and social conditions of people living in rural areas and reduce disparities in the level of development between the rural and urban areas. Another objective is to fully integrate the rural economy, particularly in communal areas, into the overall national economy.
At constituency level, the economic and monetary framework is influenced by the policies of previous administrations. This can be split into four distinct phases including the Pre-Independence period (1890-1980), the post independent era (1980-1990); the era of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (199 1-1998), and the current Land and Agrarian Reforms.
Accelerated and sustainable rural development hinges on intensive agricultural production, redistribution of productive resources, including land and water; provision of adequate infrastructure; technical and financial support and other services to the rural communities. Promotion of off-farm economic activities and provision of environment friendly technologies; are not only necessary but also imperative.
The Pre Independence Era (1890-1980)
The economic and monetary framework during this period was heavily biased towards protecting the interests of the colonisers who practised policies of discrimination against the indigenous black person. Masvingo South Constituency spreads out of the first urban centre, Fort Victoria, established by the colonialists in the then Southern Rhodesia. It is surprising that the first town-has not grown into a major industrial complex. For the first town in the country, it is logical to expect more visible signs of development. The Masvingo South Constituency - was first administered as part of Victoria District by a District Commissioner. Over lime, the constituency was handed over to Chiredzi District and run from Chiredzi. Just before independence, it was handed back to Fort Victoria District. The continued change of guards between Fort Victoria and Chiredzi left a trail of underdevelopment across the constituency. It is also important to note that while Fort Victoria was the first town to be established in Old Rhodesia, there were very few white farmers around the constituency. This affected the state of infrastructure across the constituency, later bequeathed to the community at independence. It was normal practice for the white settlers to develop tarred road and communication networks to serve their areas, leaving the rural blacks in remote inaccessible areas.
Prior to the Westernization that came with the Pioneer Column that came to Fort Victoria in the 1890s, the majority of the Africans operated outside the agro based economic and monetary framework. Land was the key asset and the number of his cattle herd judged a person’s wealth. To this day, Masvingo Province has the highest number of cattle within Zimbabwe. It may also be assumed that most of this herd comes from the Masvingo South Constituency, with Ward 29 contributing the greatest numbers.
Cattle figares from the National Agrlcalthral Policy 2004.2025; March 2004, first Draft).

Five white farmers who were mainly cattle ranches owned the whole Gunikuni, Tokwane, Ngundu and Access into these areas by telephone assured as government policy then.
The Government of the day, through the Master Farmer competition organised by the Department of Agricultural Extension established Mushawasha small-scale farms for blacks from 1953 to 1958. This gave birth to Mushawasha East, Central and West. There were similar small scale farming schemes for blacks all over the country, such as those in Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Mutasa and many more. The average plot size was 120 hectares. The unfortunate consequence of this development is that most of the beneficiaries of the farming schemes were not original people from the same areas. Using the traditional authority structures, part of the Mushawasha West (Ngomahuru area) is under Chief Charumbira and part of it also falls under Chief Mapanzure (Mamvura area).
Mushawasha Central and East fall under Chief Shumba. The original people in Mushawasha East belong to Chief Nyajena and some come from Chief Murinye. Most of the dislocated people were integrated within their respective rural chiefdoms. This displacement still needs to be corrected as most areas have become congested.
The area around Gunikuni used to be one huge cattle ranch, which was taken over by the new Government of 1980, paving way for creation of small scale farming schemes of Villages one to 22 in Ward 21.
The Tokwane-Ngundu area was also a cattle ranch that was taken over by the new Government of 1980. Some families were settled without proper boundaries. This has led to a serious squatter problem that was raised by the respondents during the survey. Urgent attention to this resettlement crisis is required.
The policy of Apartheid implemented by the white settler saw many people dislodged from the Constituency into various Southern Rhodesian government structures mainly the police and army. The settler believed as part of the Apartheid policy that the Karanga would be used in the security forces. -
This had a huge impact on the demographics of the Constituency during the colonial era. This may explain why we had many nationalists arising out of the constituency during this era like the late Dr Zvobgo to name but one. The constituency was depleted of its young men who had to go for Rhodesia security services or the armed liberation struggle.
Mr P Dhliwayo (Headmaster for Magudu Primary School) was very keen to have a borehole erected at the school as the teachers face chronic shortages of water. The nearest Community borehole is 2 kilometres away while Magudu Dam is 5 kilometres away. They ~rould therefore require piped water at the school from either a borehole or the dam. This is one such need that the previous colonial govermnent did not address. The issue of education and associated support amenities.
Ms Gladys Chigarire (Secretary for Youth: Ward 26), and another Youth representative in Ward 26; Taruvinga Musariwa, both see the urgent need for a developed road network which was neglected by the colonial regime as indicated by them during our interviews.
Tsungayi Magiwa a female farmer in ward 23 is concerned about a Resident Doctor at Nyajena Rural Hospital while at the same time she wants a Fees and Food assistance programme for school children in need. She also wants the road network to be tarred with all weather bridges. Mr Julius Zimondi (Chairman of District: Ward 24) and Ms Ketsia Chindakuda a member of the youth in Ward 25 share these views. These are the many things neglected by the Smith regime that are now affecting the community of Masvingo South Constituency.
The Post Independent Era (1980-1990)
The major objective during this period was to redress inequalities of the pre-independence era, through repeal of restrictive legislation, land redistribution, increased agricultural production, and development of infrastructure and social services in favour of the black majority. The government instituted a land resettlement programme and charged all key public sector institutions to accord high priority to smaliholder agriculture. This exercise saw the creation of farming communities in Ward 21, 22 and 30, with villages ito 22 of Ward 21 in particular.

The first Member of Parliament to represent Masvingo South Constituency when the Constituency system was introduced in 1985 was the late Dr Edison Jonasi Mudadirwa Zvobgo. In 1980 elections the Constituency system was not in place. The late Dr Zvobgo served his constituency until his death in August 2004.
Uptake of farming by smallholder farmers was dramatic. This is because the white settler had displaced the black farmer from his land. The new government found a lot of farmers yearning to be resealed. These smaliholder farmers became the largest suppliers of maize and cotton to formal markets within the first five years (1980-1985) of independence. This was as a result of increased access to credit, research and extension services, agricultural inputs and regulated markets.
Between 1980 and 1993 agriculture GDP annual growth rate averaged 1.4%, about half the population growth rate, resulting in increases in GDP in the early years of independence of over 8%. Major drawbacks were intermittent droughts experienced in 1982/83? 1983/84, 1986/87 and increases in budget deficits brought about by unavoidable high expenditure on social amenities and rural infrastructure.
The people of Masvingo South Constituency have taken up small scale farming as an economic activity. They have been empowered by being given the land. However, in most areas they need dams in order to irrigate the land due to the erratic nature of the rains. The people also need to be resettled properly in Ward 30 and 21, as over crowding is still a problem. This overcrowding has caused siltation on one dam near Gunikuni. The issue of grazing land needs attention in these over crowded parts of the constituency.
Ms Esnath Chikoti a Zion Church Member in Ward 21 requires the Grain Marketing Board to have a depot close to Ward 21. She also needs a clinic to be close to Ward 21. She wants clean tap water in homes as well as electricity in homes, schools and clinics. Meanwhile Faith Rafomoyo, a Bangomwe School Teacher, is concerned with teachers’ accommodation and provision of teaching materials and resources. The state of classrooms is a matter of serious concern to her. She wants the road to be developed into an all weather road.
These issues are shared by Ms Clara Neka of Ward 22 who further pointed out the need for telephone communication in the ward.
Many people felt that electricity, tap water, close clinics, close schools and tarred road networks - should be matters of priority in independent Zimbabwe and in particular Masvingo South Constituency.
Economic Structural Adjustment Era
(1991-1998)
This era saw the implementation of the World Bank and IMF structural adjustment programme ESAP and home grown ZIMPREST, that focused on transformation of the agricultural sector from command economy to market driven. Major aspects were deregulation of domestic and external trade, commercialisation and privatisation of state enterprises and reform of the public service. Some of these reforms led to commercialisation and privatisation of Cotton Marketing Board, Dairy Marketing Board, Agricultural Finance Corporation and the Cold Storage Commission; coupled with dissolution of Agricultural Marketing Authority and removal of subsidies from public enterprises.
The reforms further marginalized smaliholder farmers, as they could not compete equally on the market with large players, thereby reversing the gains achieved in the previous decade. The gap between the ‘have’s and ‘have not’s’ widened as the expected scenario of a short, sharp shock to the economy did not materialize, resulted instead in a drop in employment levels and cushioning by social safety nets. The effect of ESAP was that prices of most agricultural inputs rose sky high, and became unaffordable for smaliholder farmers. Meanwhile research and extension services declined, and access to credit through AFC was reduced. The severe drought of 1991/92 further worsened food security and increased the national budget deficit.
In 1996, the Ministry of Agriculture produced the first comprehensive agricultural policy framework with a Vision up to 2020. It was called the Zimbabwe Agricultural Policy Framework (ZAPF), 1995 - 2020. The framework highlighted the thndamental pillars for increasing food production and reducing poverty, hunger, malnutrition and
unemployment in a liberalized environment which were:
• Transformation of smallholder sectof into a fully commercial farming system;
• An average increase in total agricultural output each year that would be significantly larger than the increase in population;
• Full development of physical and social infrastructure in all areas throughout the country; and
• Development of fully sustainable farming systems throughout the country, which would reverse environmental degradation and soil erosion.
The translation of the policy framework into an Agricultural Sector Investment Programme was not fully realised as the major financiers of the Programme, The World Bank, suspended funding citing lack of progress by Zimbabwe Government to achieve set targets of the Structural Adjustment Programme. However, institutional reform of the Ministry of Agriculture was completed. By 1997, it was obvious the objectives of the policy and short- term goals would not be achieved before addressing the fundamental aspect of land redistribution, as only 44% of resettlement had been achieved.
(First Draft National Agricultural Policy: 2004 2025; March 2004)


The ESAP era created many poor families in the constituency. The average family could not afford the price of basic commodities. Their single income from agricultural output was not available as a result of many years of poor rains during this era. Prices were rising beyond the reach of many families. Many rural shops closed during this period due to the many logistical problems faced in providing goods in the shops as well as the general rise in prices making many items beyond the reach of many.
Mrs E Chekai a farmer in Ward 19 believes that the establishment ef wholesale shops at Rural Service Centres will go a long way in reversing the misfortunes of the ESAP era. She also requires haulage trucks for ferrying farm produce to markets. Sylvia Hwena (Secretary for the Youth League: Ward 19) wants irrigation schemes and telephones. Mr Leo Chatikobo (Councillor: Ward 20) and Bright Nyoni a farmer in Ward 20 share the same sentiments.

Thç Land and Agrarian Reform Era since 1998.
The 1998 Donor Conference placed Land Reform and Resettlement as a priority. However, pledges by the international community were not realised and lack of progress in the land redistribution forced cl+overnment to embark on a Fast Track Resettlement Programme in 2000. The government introduced the Milleimium Economic Recovery Programme (MERP) in 2000 to address some of the liberalisation policies. The National Economic Recovery Plan (NERP) replaced the short-term policy in 2003, as most of the objectives could not be achieved. The implementation of the Land Reform and Resettlement Programme since 2000 has resulted in the broadening of the agricultural production base by de~-racializing land tenure and distribution. The Macroeconomic Framework (2004 - 2006) has now replaced NERP.
(Source: First Draft National Agricultural Policy: 2004-2025; March 2004)


The Government successfully acquired a minimum of 11 million hectares of land bringing to 14.4 million hectares in total for the Land Reform Programme since independence. Over 500,000 families are set to benefit and the process is on going with more prominence being given to Al families, in order to decongest the marginal communal areas. The land reform has dramatically changed the agrarian structure and developmental needs of the indigenous farming dommunity. It follows that a strategic development plan at constituency level was not only necessary but also imperative. Masvingo South Constituency has its own unique issues and challenges as it responds to land reform and resettlement. These will be dealt with in more detail.
Many people interviewed praise the Government for embarking on the Land Reform Programme. However many people like Mr T Matavire (Village Vice Chairman: Ward 30) and Mrs Edna Mutande (Chairwoman- Women’s League: Ward 26) desire to be allocated land. Others like Mrs Esnath Muzvodziwa (Village Health Worker Ward 28) also praise the government for Land and Agrarian reform and go further to request assistance with boreholes and clean water for drinking.
Jetina Matakanure from Ward 30 is keen to have land for agriculture together with the agricultural inputs - seeds, fertiliser, and water as well as tillage power.

Shuvai Tomu and John Muganda who are both farmers in Ward 30 raised these same issues. They strongly request for land for Agriculture and resettlement. Nyajena Mission development to a boarding school and growth point status for Shumba business centre are issues burning Veneka Ndondondo a Farmer in Ward 30. These matters also run very deep in the mind of Mr W. Matungira, the District Chairman Tokwane-Ngundu (Ward 30). Many people among who are Kariba Musayidzwa (Ward 30), Mr Jeremia T. Chihungure (Ward 30) expressed that land is required for development.

The Macro Economic Environment

The economic policy framework has been structured such that the economy is driven from a very unstable macro-economic environment, characterised by negative GDP growth, hyperinflation, growing unemployment, mounting debt, shrinking incomes, minimal domestic and foreign investment, and a subdued productive base, among other challenges. The fervent hope is to be able to turn these adverse challenges into opportunities, for the betterment of all.
In the last few years, our economy has been adversely affected by coimnodity shortages, including low stocks of hospital drugs and medicines, lack of foreign currency, shortages of fuel and frequent interruptions of electricity supplies, shortages of basic necessities like bread, milk and cooking oil. However, the economic policy framework has managed to address the shortage of basic commodities.
In order to deal with the above and as a successor to NERP the Government has established a new macro-economic framework for 2005 - 2006, which is meant to push the country towards a path of sustained economic growth. This is a ten-point plan that aims at consolidating the gains achieved during implementation of the NERP and strengthens policy implementation and co-ordination. The objectives of the policy frame include guiding the current macro’ economic stabilisation efforts, which target reducing inflation to double-digit figures by 2005 (30-35%). GDP is targeted to become positive and around 3%. The policy frame also focuses on poverty reduction through macroeconomic stabilisation and will be supported by sustenance of income generating programmes.
(Source: The Government of Zimbabwe, Macro-Economic Policy Framework 2005-2006:
Towards sustained economic growth; Hnrnre November 2004).

The economy is forecast to grow by 3.5% and 5% in
2005, on the backdrop of improved foreign
exchange earnings, decline in inflation and positive
supply side effects of various interventions, during
2004.
The cleaning up process taking place in the Land
Redistribution Exercise, as well as the
comprehensive irrigation rehabilitation
programmes already underway, are expected to bolster growing productivity in agriculture. It is expected that agriculture will re-emerge as one of the leading sectors in the economic turn around over the next five years.

Cost of Living
The monetary policy frame is based on the need for stakeholders in Government, Labour, Business, Civil Society and the Financial Sector to fortif~, the economic turnaround programme through binding social contracts that stabilize prices, wages, interest rates and increase productivity, among other socioindicators. In recognition of the need to uplift living conditions for the majority of fellow Zimbabweans, the policy framework advocates for a nationwide minimum wage that is based on poverty datum line thresholds.

Inflation - The Nation’s Number 1 Enemy.
As progress in fighting inflation continue to bear fruit, labour unions are implored to move away from benchmarking wage negotiations on past inflation, and move more towards forward looking contracts that take into account the positive effects of falling inflation.

The average annual inflation, excluding Zimbabwe, in the region has declined from 17.1% in 2002 to 16.3% in 2003 and is forecast to decelerate further to 11.7% in 2004. The objective within the SADC region is to reduce inflation to below 10% per annum.
(Source: Macro-Economic Policy Framework: 2005-2006: November, 2004)

The Government of Zimbabwe is targeting reducing inflation down to 20% in 2005, and under 10% for 2006. These targets will guide the thrust of the Reserve Bank Monetary Policy.

The Economic Fundamentals
Global GDP growth is projected to average 4.75% in 2004, underpinned by stronger- than -expected economic upsurge in the first quarter of 2004. This follows very strongly growth prospects of around 9% for 2004 in China. The adverse impact of higher oil prices, slackening fiscal and monetary stimulus are expected to slow down global growth in the second quarter of 2004. The sharp increase in international oil prices has a great impact on the economy in Zimbabwe; it also highlights the urgent need for alternative energy sources- Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in Sub-Saharan African countries varies across countries, reflecting differences in economic management systems, ravaging effects of occasional droughts, vulnerability to volatile international commodity prices and a narrow industrial base in the majority of countries, among other factors.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework; 2041—2005: November 2004).

GDP growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is projected at 4.6% in 2004, following the 3.5% growth of 2003. The growth in 2004 resulted from higher than expected growth in Nigeria. Increase in GDP growth in Sub Saharan Africa also underpinned by improving macro-economic stability, growth in global demand for commodities at higher prices and improved access to markets in developed countries.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework; 2004-2005: November 2004).

Monetary Policy
In reducing inflation to the targeted levels, the Reserve Bank continues to implement a restrictive monetary policy. This has the dual responsibility of supporting the productive sector, through concessional fmancing facilities, whilst restraining unproductive credit expansion to contain the growth of both broad and reserve money. The implementation of the dual interest rates structure was consistent with the inflation targets. Reduction
of inflation obviates the need for concessional facilities.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework, 2004-2005: November 2004).

Fiscal Policy
The main thrust of fiscal policy is focused on consolidating the turn around of the economy, while also protecting the provision of basic social services. In this regard, the implementation of measures to anchor rapid economic growth and a stable macro-economic environment will be central to Budget design. The fiscal deficit, and consequently government borrowing, has been contained at levels consistent with the monetary targets, necessary for further reduction in inflation levels. Requests for unbudgeted expenditures by line Ministries, against a low revenue base, which threaten the budget as a tool for macro-economic management, will not be supported. Prudent fiscal policy management will be pursued during 2005 and 2006, with recurrent expenditure limited to available revenues and borrowing being only in support of the development budget.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework, 2004—2005: November 2004.)


The key elements of the fiscal policy are:
• Improved Public Financial Management
• Implementation and Control of Expenditure.
• Improved Fiscal Resource Mobilisation, and
• Effective Public Debt Management.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework: November2004)

Public Expenditure
At district level, community based vocational apprenticeship schemes such as carpentry; metal work, farm management and food processing must be established. Rural District Councils need resources to spearhead rural development through the Rural Capital Development Fund. Growth points and pen-urban centres (e.g. Renco), which are capable of breaking the cycle of poverty, have been accorded priority in terms of infrastructure development.

Government has promised to assist Local Authorities by partial funding of mandatory responsibilities such as health, education and infrastructure development and maintenance. The resource base for Rural District Councils needs to be broadened through levying newly settled commercial farmers and informal traders.
In order to strengthen Local Authorities and improve their efficiency, the Urban Councils’ and Rural District Councils’ Acts shall be harmonised into a single Local Government Act. Performance monitoring of Local Authorities will be improved through strengthening the offices of Provincial Governors, Provincial and District Administrators and other Line Ministries.
Priority areas for monitoring will include financial management, capital development and governance. This is designed to guard against poor service delivery, unjustifiable increases in rates and other charges as these are associated with reductions in living standards at the local community level. This has not only increased hardships on the part of residents, but also significantly contributed to macro-economic instability.
(Macro—Economic Policy Framework; 2005 2006: Harare 2004)
In order to meet the needs of the vulnerable groups (children in difficult circumstances including orphans, physically challenged persons, people suffering from chronic diseases, victims of abuse and the elderly), Government promised that their needs would be incorporated during the designing and implementation of all programmes and projects.
(Macro—Econonur Polio, Frau en ark: 2005—2006, Harare 2004).

The Member of Parliament must ensure that the affected people in his constituency get the necessary help from these programmes.
Publicly funded social safety nets continue to be strengthened and specific allocations made for vulnerable groups and those institutions catering for such people. A Health Insurance Scheme for vulnerable groups is in the offing. The Member of Parliament must see to it that his constituency does benefit from this scheme.
(Macro.Ecoaomic Policy Framework: 2005—2006, Harare 2004).

Poverty Reduction
The socio-economic exclusion of the poor from the
mainstream of economy is a potential source of political instability. Increasing levels of poverty also reduce market demand for goods and services undermining economic growth as more resources are channelled towards poverty alleviation. The equitable distribution of land, financing inputs and infrastructure development are also integral to poverty alleviation. Poverty Alleviation Action Programmes should be promoted through the provision of adequate financial, material and human resource support, including public works. Community driven public work programmes inject disposable incomes into the hands of the poor, for some of their food consumption and social service requirements during off-peak agricultural labour periods. They also promote a participatory approach to community social service delivery.
(Macro-Ecoaomic Policy Framework, 2005-2006; Harare November 2004)

Councillor Maregere of Ward 28 and his ward development committee have poverty alleviation as one of the ward’s top three development objectives. They want the Member of Parliament to visit the Ward regularly. They also need help with employment generation schemes for all schoolleavers. In addition they wish to see the siltation in the Maregere Dam dealt with. They believe that the implementation of these schemes will go a long way in poverty alleviation in the ward.
Income generating projects support the above effort through availing meaningful and affordable funding, extension of management and marketing skills. Other measures include consolidating and strengthening nutrition programmes, disaster management systems and reversing the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. The above social development programmes are targeted on the basis of the geographical distribution of poverty as per findings of the Poverty Assessment Study which will have to play a significant role in the Masvingo South Constituency.
(Macro-Economic Policy Framework; 2005-2006; Harare 2004)

Mr Isaiah Chiyitani (Teacher in Ward 29) and Wilfred Chirefu another teacher in Ward 29 strongly agree on food security as their number two priorities in any developmental initiative within the ward. They argue that with viable irrigation schemes in the ward the community should be able to manage poverty alleviation. They contend that the ward has very little rain even. There is also agreement on the need for training centres in the ward as means of alleviating poverty.
According to Malaysian Premier, Abdullah Badawi in his presentation to the Global 2004 Langkawi International Dialogue, deprivation has to do with lack of access to adequate food, clothing, shelter, education and other essentials of a descent life. Premier Badawi insists that any poverty reduction strategy should be concerned at the very least with capacity building. The powerlessness that emanates from being excluded from quality opportunities to develop capabilities is certainly more relevant than the traditional income deficiency approach. For example, educational deprivation will see far greater marginalization and exclusion of millions of people from the mainstream knowledge-based global economy. Poverty reduction is fundamental to peace and security for any nation.
(NECF The Forum: August- October 2004)

Martha Manyusa of Gutsavana Project (A freezit making project at Renco mine; Ward 25), Elizabeth Kufonga (Ward 25), Helen Mafarikwa (Chairperson of Chenesa Mhuri Soap Making Project: Renco Ward 25), Mrs M. Mazhambe (Ward 25) and Clever Mujuru an unemployed married man in Renco all agree that capacity building in the form of project financing will be key to poverty alleviation in Masvingo South Constituency.

Poverty Reduction: Fish Farming Projects
Poverty reduction in the Constituency has to be taken as top priority as the Constituency has been ravaged by successive droughts for a long time. The fastest route towards poverty alleviation in the Constituency is to introduce fish in all the dams throughout the constituency. Currently, Rupike Dam has large quantities of tilapia species. There is an urgent need to introduce the following fish types from abroad which are now available locally:
Macrica, Niloticus and Chinese Common Carp. These fish, with particular reference to Macrica, will be available for harvesting by the community within three months of being introduced.
This will mean that the dams will have to be fenced and one entry-exit point provided so as to control over exploitation.
(MABC Survey November 2004).


While fish and other schemes are being put in place, there is need for food aid in the constituency in the short term. With about 75 561 people and an average household of 4.9 and there being 15 507 households requiring 90kg of maize per month, the constituency require 1 395 630 kg of maize every month for every three months. This maize has to be donated by either GMB, Government, Donor Agencies or any other person or individual. There is also need to supplement the maize with dry kapenta. About 1kg of dry kapenta is needed for each family every month. This will amount to 1.5 507 000kg of dry kapenta per month. In addition, 5000 tonnes of sugar will be required. A feeding programme at schools needs to be initiated.
(Population figures CSO 2002: Consumption rates MABC Survey November 2004, Sugar ueeds MP 2004).

Investment for Growth
Generally, there has been very little foreign direct investment in the country in the last five years. Over the years, the budgetary allocation for the Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP) has fallen sharply. This has adversely affected development of rural infrastructure and amenities. Such projects provide scope for generating employment opportunities for local people and local indigenous firms should be hired to implement the projects. Government invests in construction of buildings, roads, railways and other amenities. It is only proper that priority be given to indigenous companies. Where such capacity lacks, such tenders can then be awarded to foreign companies. At least 75 percent of the subcontracts must be awarded to Zimbabwean indigenous black companies. The Main contractor must not only transfer technology, but also plough back a percentage into training, SME development, Information Technology Research and Development. Such is the essence of indigenous empowerment.
(Joseph Chipato: NECF The Forum: August October 2004)

The Tokwe-Mukosi Dam is one example of such infrastructure development in Masvingo South Constituency.

Trade in an Era of Globalisation.
The country trade is primarily agriculture based, with tobacco taking the lead. The weather, soil and lack of good rains render Masvingo South Constituency unsuitable for tobacco growing. Livestock is however thriving in the constituency particularly in Ward 29 and 30 as well as the central wards like 23 and 24, where other crops like maize, cotton, Soya beans and other types of beans grow well. The Constituency needs however to aggressively market its produce after adding value and beyond our borders.
The Constituency is endowed with gold being mined at Renco. This has brought benefits to Ward 24/25 and the Constituency at large.

Industrialisation
The first town to be established in Zimbabwe was Fort Victoria, later renamed Masvingo. Masvingo is also a name derived from the Great Zimbabwe monument which is located some 20km from the city centre. Unlike its ancient namesake at the now Ruins, Masvingo is not industrialised, it is a commercial service centre compared to Harare, Bulawayo, Mutare and Gweru.
There is great potential for agro-based industrialisation if the people in Masvingo province want to add value to most of theft agricultural produce. Since there is plenty of cattle, there is potential to establish meat processing and canning factories, dairies as well as cotton ginneries and Soya bean processing plants. There will be down stream industries created from the realisation of the above.

Indigenisation- Taking Control of Our Resources.
The country has embarked on a number of empowerment and incligenisation programs. However, some of these empowerment and indigenisation programs have merely sought to enrich a few individuals, especially top management teams, leaving out the equally deserving workers at lower levels. According to the NECF Task Force, led by Mr Joseph Chipato, the spirit among investors, both local and foreign should be to move away from avarice and begin to share the country’s resources. Monopolising the economic benefits only leads to insecurity of investments whether by a foreign investor or a black owned business.
(NECF: The Forum: August-October 2004)

Indigenisation and empowerment schemes in Masvingo South Constituency are primarily based on agriculture. These schemes tend to suffer from erratic rainfall. The need for irrigation schemes cannot be overemphasized. Given the level of poverty, irrigation schemes as means of empowerment and indigenisation, suffer from an acute lack of financial capital. The Rupike Irrigation Scheme has found sponsors in the form of RioZim Foundation. The Foundation decided that it was buying two new electric pumps for the Scheme’s pump house. The MP promised the Scheme he was also going to provide funds on a matching dollar to dollar basis for the Scheme to buy a third new pump. This is a welcome development in the empowerment of the people of Masvingo South Constituency. Assistance with the other irrigation schemes within the Constituency will be very much appreciated.

VISION


Interpreting the results
1. Vision

The people of Masvingo South Constituency indicated that their 2010 vision is:
A prosperous constituency with a communication network accessible and usable all-year round, reliable water supply supporting farming activities, good health and education delivery services with people living in electrified homes, drinking clean safe tap Water.
2. Mission
To work diligently towards theft prosperity.
3. Objectives or goals
These are some of the 5-10 years
objectives recorded from respondents.
• Establishing a vibrant indigenous music
instruments (mbira, drums, hosho)
manufacturing plant, exporting its products.
• Rumiing a successful Ward dairy plant that
makes ice-cream, fresh cream and other
dairy products.
• Producing seed.
t Establishing a food processing plant that
serves farmers even from other
Constituencies.
• Running a ZWlOmillion per month revenue
generating dressmaking factory producing
among other things clothing items,
uniforms for schools in the constituency and
surrounding areas.
• AYatching concern on the Tokwe-Mukosi
dam once completed.
• Living in a four bed-roomed house with
borehole tap water, electricity and
telephone, and living on fresh food, feasting
on a beast (cattle) on one family occasion
per annum.
4. Understanding
The understanding of the people of Masvingo South Constituency is that meaningful development starts with unity of purpose. A road network that is accessible and usable all- year round, telephone service, electricity, reliable water supply, land to farm and start-up financing are the key drivers to Masvingo South Constituency development. Health delivery service stafl Arex staff as well as Teachers are essential to development of a resourceful community. Service conditions for these key development agents should be improved.
5. Expectations / Requirements
It is expected that once key infrastructure and seed financing is provided, Masvingo South Constituency will become the food basket of Masvingo Province. Unity of purpose among the stakeholders is required to bring success. The Honourable Member of Parliament is expected to lead People of Masvingo South Constituency to prosperity.
6. Disappointments
The state of the communication network and lack of reliable water supply are major disappointments to the Constituency. The poor service in this respect is viewed as the major stumbling block to sustainable development, and catastrophic in the work of natural disasters, such as cyclones.
7. The Plan
The road to sustainable development starts with unity of purpose. Good reliable communication infrastructure and excellent health delivery service to a literate community guarantees prosperity.
8. Observations
The road network is poor resulting in severe transport problems. Telecommunication capacity in the Constituency was designed for less than 10 people (now serving over 75,000 people) during the pre-independence era. The area is thought prone leading to acute water shortages in many parts of the Constituency. These three factors are the principal causes of the Constituencys lack of development. However, the existence of plenty cattle does present a huge opportunity for development of meat processing related industries.
The lack of science (biology, physics, chemistry) teaching in schools is detrimental to real progress.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

A strong win-win partnership between the Member of Parliament, Governor and Chief Executive Officer of the RDC is strongly recommended, as this is the single most important determinant of political cohesion and development. In addition a very strong relationship between the Members of Masvingo North, Central and South is mandatory. These relationships will be critical in the management of a fair resource allocation and planning at RDC level as well as accessing line Ministry budgets. It is the lack of this win-win partnership that has led to marginalization of Masvingo South Constituency.

The Masvingo South Development Corporation needs to embark on a global public relations and fundraise exercise aimed at raising private sector finance for infrastructure as outlined above.

All efforts must be put towards creating a sustainable food and nutrition programme within the constituency based on all-year-round irrigation schemes supported by all-year-round access to water. This means that there has to be a plan for dam development and construction across the constituency. The objective is to totally eradicate poverty and disease through a sustainable community driven food provision programme.

This people centred developmental approach must see the suffering from HIV/AIDS eliminated and the plight of orphans so created, dealt with in a sustainable manner.

The Masvingo South Development Corporation must be the envy of all Zimbabweans within five years.

Masvingo Rural District Council

Masvingo Rural District Council area lies in the North West of the Administrative District and share boundaries with Zaka and Bikita in the East, Gum in the West, and Chiredzi in the South with Chirumanzu (Midlands) in the North. The total land area of the district is 68543 ha. Most parts of the district are amble. Altitude ranges from 460 metres within Nyajena area to 1544 metres (above sea level). The highest point is Nyuni Mountains. The geology is predominantly granitic although there are isolated pockets of dolomite throughout the district. The abundance of grani te rocks has led to the formation of sandy loam soils. The district lies in agro -ecological regions Ill and W with few pockets dominated by region V. Annual mean rainfall ranges from 450mm to 700mm and similarly like other districts in the province, there are mid-season droughts. Temperatures range from plus or minus 15 degrees Celsius in winter to plus or minus 30 degrees Celsius in summer. Agriculture is the main activity in the district.

The district has a population of approximately 219 872 (CSO 1996 and 2002). Of this population, 89% is rural and African (99,97%). The avenge population density is 28 people per square kilometre. This is greater than that of the provincial average of 23.

Granite rock is the most common rock. The area south and east of Lake Mutirikwi comprises young intrusive granite, gradiorite and adenelite. The areas between Masvingo town and Lake Mutirikwi as well as Mashava (NW-SE BELT) have meta sediments and felsic meta volcanics. Areas around Bondolfi Mission and South West of Masvingo town have serpentine and ultramafic complexes with contractions around Mashava on the western part of the district. The same type of igneous rock characteristics of the great dyke is rich in asbestos and chloromite. Nickel Magnesit and gold on the souther n part of the district (Renco Mine); the greater part of the districts covered by soil derivatives. There are kaolinitic sands of various amounts of leaching. Small patches of dolomite derivatives are common. Alluvial deposits are commonly found along valle ys to the southern part of the district. With this background it is not surprising that the stonemasons of the Old Munhumutap•e Empire decided to build the Great Zimbabwe in the district.

The most common tree species on the western part are Brachystegia ho hemic (mupfuti) and Colohospermum (Mopani). The area covered include Mushandike resettlement scheme. Other species are Julbernadia Globiflora (Mutondo). Hyperhenia grass is found mostly in commercial farms. Generally grasses in the area are of the middle veld type.

Masvingo District covers three agro ecological regions III, IV and V.

The rainfall is erratic, unreliable and unevenly distributed ranging from 450mm in the South to 300mm in the North. It is spread between November and April. The area is prone to periodic seasonal droughts and severe dry spells during the rain season.

Masvingo Administrative District is comprised of three parliamentary constituencies, namely Masvingo North, Masvingo Central and Masvingo South. This strategic plan focuses on Masvingo South Constituency, analysing its infrastructure, its people and their specific developmental needs and aspirations.

RESEARCH ANALYSIS
Research
Scope

The research, which was conducted over a period of six weeks, covered Masvingo South Constituency. It was restricted to capturing the development needs of the constituency as expressed by the people.
Objective
The purpose of the research was to come up with
the Masvingo South Constituency Strategic
Development Plan from the people.
Methodology
A structured questionnaire targeting five key stake holders randomly selected in the Ward, five interviewees each from the North, South, East, West and centre of the Ward.
Interviews with key institutions working in the Constituency (Government officials responsible for health and child welfare, education, rural district planning and corporate bodies such as Rio Zimbabwe).
The research team made its own observation in the course of collecting and collating data and information.
Terms of Reference (Mandate)
The Hon. MP for Masvingo South Constituency,
Cde. Walter Mzembi commissioned MABC TV
Pit to conduct the research that feeds into a
Strategic Development Plan for the Masvingo
South Constituency.
Theme
People centred sustainable development.
Questionnaire
The questionnaire, on a two- page form, consisted of 13 statements that required responses from at least 30 randomly selected interviewees per ward. Five of the interviewees being important development stakeholders comprising th~ Chief, Headman, Headmaster, Businessperson and the Ward Councillor.
Rationale
Projects need to be grown out of people who benefit from them. Such community-supported projects, everything else being equal, have a greater chance to succeed than projects imposed on people. Respect and support are largely drawn from a collective sense of ownership that the community regard or feel about a project. Consultation and a feeling of active participation as opposed to mere involvement imbues in people a deep sense of collective ownership, that brings with it Respect and Support, the key drivers of project success.
This realisation demands a consultative approach achieved through inviting the People of Masvingo South Constituency to formulate the plan whose objective is to deliver sustainable development to foster better livelihood in the constituency.
The purpose of the field research was to establish and document both the appetite for development and the details of the needs and requirements fuelling that appetite. The resultant effect is a plan by the people for the people - the Masvingo South Constituency Strategic Development Plan.
The questionnaire, forming the core ofthe research methodology, sought to establish shared understanding and development priorities, as a basis for meaningful planning for the Constituency, Ward by Ward.
There is a section of the questionnaire that captures the identity of the interviewee. This was so done, to infuse an apolitical approach and business ambience needed in planning, as well as a sense of ownership to the process by the people who fmd that their ideas, the output building up to the plan, are actually their own inputs in a process which they own.

The Masvingo South - Constituency STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN


When the people elect you to represent them in Parliament, they bestow on you, not just the honour, trust and confidence that you will articulate their views in the august house, but indeed that through you their lives change for the better.
It is incumbent upon the MP to start by consulting the people; to hear what they think can be done to improve their lives. You start with what the people know, and what they perceive are their priorities, and then synthesize their ideas into a strategic development plan.
This Strategic Development Plan is an attempt to examine Masvingo South Constituency in its entirety highlighting the historical background, the economic and social Environment; and resources that can be turned into wealth.
The people in the Constituency are at the centre of the Plan and with their active participation in affairs that affect them, as outlined in this document, one can confidently say they own this Plan. It is a new beginning in the development of participatory democracy: The Plan is not cast in concrete. It is adju~table, flexible and can be reviewed from time to time, as the situation on the ground changes.
As the incumbent MI’, I am only too glad to have catalysed, commissioned and funded the research and publication of the Plan, with the hope that it will become the launch pad for our developmental goals, not just in Masvingo South Constituency, but indeed the country as a whole.
I must pay tribute to my predecessor, the late Honourable Dr Edison Jonasi Mudadirwa Zvobgo, national hero and founder of the great nation of Zimbabwe. He steered the Constituency with his sharp legal brain. He left a legacy of hope for all of us. I can never attempt to step into his big shoes. He was a rare commodity and we all cherish his dedication to the national liberation struggle and his innumerable contributions to the nation of Zimbabwe. Twill wear my own pair of shoes that fit me and I am comfortable in them. However, I promise to be the servant of the people of Masvingo South Constituency and I will devote all my energies to work for the people.
I commend this study to all the people of Masvingo South Constituency, to various technocrats in Government, the business community, students, Academicians, the Youth, Women Groups, Civil Society, Co-operating partners both local and abroad. Everybody can, in their small way, play a pivotal role in developing the constituency.

WALTER MZEMBI PROFILE

Born on the 16th of March
1964 at Masvingo General Hospital; Masvingo,
Masvingo South Constituency MP
Walter was born in a revolutionary family and his father Xavier Morris Mzembi (the late), was very active in the early stages of our revolution. Xavier was part of the Munodawafa Youth Group (NDP). After the detention of the leaders at Hwahwa, Xavier consistently visited our leaders, Leopold Takawira, Thomas Zawaira, Nolan Makombe and Eddison Zvobgo (a relative) .On Cde Zvobgo’s release he stayed with the family for quite sometime because he was restricted to urban Masvingo .This was the beginning of the inspiration that Walter got from the revolutionaries. His father continued up to 1980 to provide logistics from Masvingo. Xavier and other comrades would cycle all the way from Masvingo town to Rupike (80km) every weekend with provisions for the freedom fighters. He passed away in 1995.

Walter is a member of Zanu(PF) and the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Collaborators Association. He is a paid member of Ward 23, where he also did collaboration and reconnaissance work for the freedom fighters in the later stages of the struggle for Independence. This is also his home area.

Walter was District Youth Chairman for Ward 23 from 1990 to 1995 and stood for Provincial Youth Chairman elections (Mucheke Stadium 1994) but had to step down in favour of a candidate from Bikita in order to fulfill the quota system that was agreed upon then .He became very active in Harare Province politics during the Tony (}ara Executive and infact submitted his CV to the Party to contest a by-election of Marlborough Ward (17) against Trudy Stevenson (then Independent now MDC) but the election was subsumed by events when the Solomon Tavengwa council was dissolved , and replaced by the Chanakira Commission He remained active in District Ward 23 politics until the District Co-ordinating Committee elections in Masvingo when he was elected District Coordinating Chairman for Masvingo late last year.
Since 1990, he has been a Development Agent for the late Member of Parliament, Honorable Eddison Jonas Mudadirwa Zvobgo. Together they implemented a number of community projects, which include the following:-
• Rural Electrification; co financing
• Irrigation Schemes; capacity building
• Social dimension and Poverty alleviation Programmes -

Walter has been working on the following projects:

1. Development and establishment of Retail facilities
• Spar Renco at Renco mine (sole shareholder)
• Farm & City Ngundu (sole shareholder)
• Agrodealer Credit support to the rural business units in the Constituency.
• Chicken project in Masvingo with a capacity of 50 000 birds a month (employment from constituency)
• Alko Ranch; currently setting a meat processing plant (employment from constituency)

2. Recreational and Sporting Programme
Through his company Rarefield Investments (Pvt.) Ltd., he launched a lucrative Secondary School Soccer and Netball Competition which was sponsored to the tune of twelve million dollars ($12 million) in 2003, and thirty million ($30 million) in 2004 and is on going.

3. He launched the Walter Mzembi Academic Excellence Fund last year financed to the tune of two hundred miliion dollars ($200 million) from which he has done the foliowing:
• Examination fees payment for "0" and ‘A" level students in the entire constituency.
• School library development
• School choir competitions
• Provision of stationery to schools
• Infrastructural rehabilitation to schools

4. Input Credit Scheme
He operates Credit and Cash schemes in the
Constituency for the timely provision
Agricultural inputs to communal farmers.

5. Ward Self Help Projects
He has initiated Ward Self-Help Projects where beneficiaries identify a project of theft choice, which he kick-starts with capital to the tune of ten million dollars ($10 million) per ward. This has been split between the three organs of the Party.

6. Constituency Tillage Services
He initiated a constituency tillage service where farmers pay for tillage services at subsidized rates.

7. Constituency Medical Brigade and Upliftment of Health Delivery

• A constituency vehicle has been donated once a month to assist in the transportation and movement of health staff to conduct monthly baby clinics.
• Muchibwa District Hospital has benefited in the past as far back as 1996 in repainting the entire establishment and Walter is in the process of securing bedding for the entire hospital including rekitting its infrastructures.
• A medical brigade has been identified that will on a quarterly basis extend free medical consultations to the deprived and poor.

8. Computerisation Programme for schools

This is on going with two schools having benefited from a donation of computers worth forty million dollars ($40 million).This is on going.

9. A vehicle for use by councillors in the constituency is in place.

Development should be people driven and through this donation we are facilitating the evolution of developmental requirements that will be condensed into a constituency blueprint and identifying development appetite and secure the necessary finding.

10.A donation of two hundred (200) bicycles, twenty ( 20) sewing machines and Three (3) motorcycles is currently in the offing, with fifty-eight (58) bicycles having been distributed to party structures to date.

This is part of the capacity building intervention for our party that Walter promised in 2003 at the December People’s Conference held in Masvingo. Distribution to structures will be completed in a month’s time.
The District Co-ordinating Committee is meant to be the beneficiary as part of the Constituency capacity building programme.
These constituency developmental interventions have been mentioned to demonstrate Walter’s intrinsic relationship with the people of Masvingo South, which is based on a vision of capacitating the community on a sustainable basis and wealth sharing.
At a National Level Walter is brokering deals through his Presidency of the Zimbabwe Agrodealers Association, Chairman of the Zimbabwe Farmers Union Agribusiness Action Committee and National Farmer Awards Trust and he is happy these have been adding value to the constituency and puffing it on the map, despite the National intervention of promoting the Agrarian Reform. Recently through Zimbabwe Indigenous Agrodealers Association, he engineered the distribution of 268 tractors to identified beneficiaries.

Walter’s role at National Politics level as an advocate of the Land Reform is a matter of public record, hence his current reign as Zimbabwe Communicator of the Year (1st runner up) after Mai Chisamba.
This prestigious award that has been won in the past by His Excellency Cde R.G Mugabe and our own son of the Province Dr S.V Mzenda amongst other winners, has been used as an advocacy platform locally and internationally to promote the Agrarian Reform.
Walter has played significant roles in the Party Fund raising as Co-Chairman to Masvingo Province raising $276 million and several goods in kind towards the successful hosting of the event. He championed and led a demonstration that led to Zimbabwe exiting honorably out of the Commonwealth. This is a matter of public record.

On a personal level Walter is a Mechanical Engineer by profession, a career manager of repute rising to General Manager of thç biggest Water Engineering Company, Stewarts and Lloyds, (1996). Marketing Director of Ag-Venture (Pvt.) Ltd. (1997-2000); before he ventured into business where he is the major Shareholder and Chief Executive Officer of Rarefield Investments (Pvt.) Ltd., an Agricultural input supplier, now with a 30% market share nationally.
He has also worked in the Civil Service becoming the first Black Inspector of Mines (Mining Machinery) for Midlands (1988-89). His contribution to the Mining Industry then is also a matter of public record. He worked for Total Zimbabwe (Pvt.) Ltd. as a Depot Manager.
from the people of Masvingo South, the Province, and the inspiration that he gets from the leadership of His Excellency, The President Cde R.G Mugabe; and his team of revolutionaries.

He is married to Barbara and together they have a family of five children His personal projects in the family have uplifted the family name and constituency in general, and he is proud of the achievements.
Walter’s cadreship in Zanu (PF) has been developed over a long period of time; commencing during his school days 1980/1/2 when he was Provincial Student Representative (Zanu PF) Masvingo Province.
It is a cadreship that is the product of input from the people of Mavingo South, the Province, and the inspiration that he gets from the leadership of his Excellency, the President Cde R.G Mugabe: and his team of revolutionaries.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This research is an attempt to harness natural, human and intellectual resources to grow and buttress a strategic development plan at Constituency level.
Based on a SWOT (Strengths, Weaktesses, Opportunities and Threats)- analysis, this study focuses on the people of Masvingo South Constituency, highlighting their problems and prospects; hopes and fears; shortcomings and aspirations.
The objective of this study, far from being academic, is to unravel what the constituency offers in terms of resources- that any discerning investor will find among and between the people- their workaholic ethic, and more importantly the team spirit that can be generated to unleash limitless opportunities in the Constituency.
This strategic development plan aims to raise the equivalent of US$210 million for infrastructure development in the Masvingo South Constituency. The infrastructure includes 500km of dust road that needs taring, the construction of 40 all-weather bridges, refurbishment of schools, construction and refurbishment of health service facilities, rural electrification, establishment of effective communications infrastructure, development of irrigation schemes, dams and water provision.
The improvement of infrastructure has the potential to ignite the industrialisation of Masvingo South Constituency as well as boost eco and cultural tourism. Infrastructure will also boost the development of agro-based industries within the constituency and the district at large, thereby improving the lives of the people within the next five years.